What did David mean in Psalm 60:8 when he wrote “on Edom I toss my sandal”?
Relief showing Tiglath Pileser, king of Assyria, with his foot on the neck of a defeated enemy, c.728 BCE.
This was an expression meaning that he would subjugate Edom. In many ancient cultures, the shoe symbolised power and possession, and placing a foot or shoe on a defeated enemy represented their total defeat.
For example, early in Israel’s history, after capturing five Amorite kings, Joshua told his army commanders: “Put your feet on the necks of these kings” (Joshua 10:24).